On Friday, WHO officials highlighted an ongoing outbreak of Leishmaniasis in their first global report on neglected diseases. An ongoing outbreak in Herat as well as the dramatic increase of cases in Kabul has alarmed health officials. Leishmaniasis causes severe skin sores that often leave substantial scarring. The visceral form of Leishmaniasis is less common but is often fatal. It is transmitted through bites from sand flies. Leishmaniasis is extremely rare in the United States, but military personnel deployed to the Persian Gulf and to Southwest/Central Asia have been diagnosed with it after returning to the US.